Do you need a dynamic website?
Static websites are synonomous with the dawn of the internet, before database servers became mainstream, before the advent of the CMS and long before the dawn of the web application. Over the years we've seen the advent of web development frameworks like Ruby on Rails, Express.js and MVC to name but a few. These frameworks include support for advanced templating engines, database backed page generation and custom routing, but is it really necessary to use such a framework when a static website might address all the same problems at a fraction of the cost.
Before we start looking at how a modern static website can be effectively managed, I'd like to discuss the advantages and use cases for dynamic websites - as well as possible optimization scenarios which can help make them more attractive. Obviously, the biggest advantage of dynamic websites is the ability to perform server side operations based on user input, this can include publishing articles from a web UI, rendering content based on remote sources like databases or other web services and authenticating your users with a custom login page.
With the advent of document stores like MongoDB, scaling dynamic web applications - and reducing their response times - has become easier than ever before, and the ability to reduce server load using tools like Memcached or microcaching has meant that generally slow web applications are now able to respond to te majority of their requests in times rivaling that of static content.
So, with all of these advantages, why would you consider hosting a static website instead? The very simple answer is performance. More specifically, using a modern webserver like NGINX you can reliably expect to quadruple your possible throughput when compared to an optimized web application, against an unoptimized web application it isn't even a contest - with over a 400x increase in possible throughput single digit millisecond server response times.
¶Static Website Performance
As I've mentioned, the performance of a static website far eclipses that of its dynamic bretheren. The reason is quite simple, where a dynamic website generally requires database queries to be completed, results processed and templates rendered before a request can be served - a static website simply requires the request to be processed by your web server (generally in the millisecond range), at which point the request can be immediately served. This allows a static site to respond faster to requests, serve more requests in parallel, and put less strain on your server while doing so. These advantages are well known, and the reason that many dynamic websites make use of internal caching systems which allow them to serve requests without needing to hit the database and page renderer - effectively acting as static websites for requests which are cacheable.
The problem is that implementing an effective caching solution is challenging, especially for dynamic websites where the webserver is unable to determine whether or not the content has changed except by rendering the latest content. A common alternative is to make use of what has been termed "microcaching", the process of caching your website's pages for a very small duration (1 - 15 seconds), which allows relatively recent content to be served from the cache while reducing the number of requests that need to be rendered against the database.
¶Static Website Creation
One of the major reasons that people have shied away from static websites is the common misconception that such websites require their pages to be manually generated - denying access to many powerful templating tools. The fact is, with tools like DocPad and SiteForge it is possible to generate a static website just as easily (if not more so) than the equivalent dynamic website - with the resulting output being a fully functional static website.
¶When You Should Use Static Websites
The simple fact of the matter is that most small websites are actually static for much of their lives - changing content slowly. Whether it's your blog, or your corporate website you will likely find that it gets updated at most once per day - usually far less frequently. What might surprise you is that this kind of website is actually the perfect candidate for a static website generator, as it is possible to serve these pages statically, updating them only when new content becomes available.
Another major advantage is the ability to update your website's code without needing to restart your web server - resulting in zero-downtime even under the most aggressive continuous deployment scenarios. And even better than that, if you need some dynamic behaviour you can easily offload those requests to a web application capable of handling them.
Here's a quick example of how such a setup could be achieved using NGINX.
¶Dynamic Content on Static Websites
You can also create web applications to perform such tasks, allowing you to keep them simple and maintainable while still permitting you to serve your high performance static web content.
For the past 6 years we've relied on Drupal to host our corporate website, it's an exceptional CMS framework which I have no issue at all recommending to someone in the market for a prebuilt website. Our major issue with hosting a website using Drupal is the barrier to customization, requiring a large amount of work from the outset to add a small amount of additional functionality or to modify a small aspect of the website. While it undoubtedly performs very well once it has been configured, we are advocates of continous itteration and deployment - something which a framework like Drupal makes difficult.
To solve this issue we developed SiteForge, a website generator which borrows many aspects from frameworks like Express.js, making it exceptionally easy to adopt and deploy for anyone with Node.js experience. We've used it to develop our new website in record time (just over 3 days of development from start to finish, where our previous Drupal website took over a month) and have managed to reduce our website's response times from around 4 seconds to less than a second - making for an extremely fast and responsive experience.